MoneraThe Kingdom Monera has no nucleus, and is single celled. The two types of Monera are bacteria and cyanobacteria.
Lyngbya majuscula
Bacilli shaped
Grows on rocks in tropical seas and estuaries.

majuscula.jpg
Estuary Moneran

estuary_oscillatoria.jpg
Estuary Monera


Oscillatoria nigroviridis
Bacilli shaped
Causesskin irritation
















ProtozoaThe Kingdom Protozoa is single or multi celled, has a nucleus, organelles, no cell wall, and no chlorophyll

Balamuthia mandrillaris
Method of movement: Pseudopod
Lives in the nervous system of apes and humans.

estuary_protozoa_2.jpg
Balamuthia mandrillaris


Naegleria fowleri
Method of movement: two flagella, or one flagellum
Causes rare deadly disease in humans
estuary_protozoa_1.jpg
Naegleria fowleri












FungiThe Kingdom Fungi is multi-celled, has no chlorophyll, and absorbs its nutrients.

Neptunella longirostris
estuary_fungi_neptune.jpg
Neptunella longirostris

Ascomycota (division): sac fungi-cup shaped
Fungi
Ascomycota
Sordariomycetes
Microascales
Halosphaeriaceae
Neptunella
longirostris
Lives in decaying wood in estuaries and streams.

estuary_rust_fungus.jpg
Rust Fungus
Cronartium flaccidum

Basidiomycota (division):club fungi closely packed filament
Fungi
Basidiomycota
Pucciniomycetes
Pucciniales
Cronartiaceae
Cronartium flaccidum
Lives around and in estuaries of Europe and parts of northern and eastern Asia


Smittium culisetae
estuary_gut_fungi.jpg
Gut Fungi

Zygomycota (division): threadlike fungi-spore at the end of filament
Fungi
Zygomycota
N/A
Harpellales
Legeriomycetaceae
Smittium
culisetae
Lives in the hind guts of certain winged aquatic insects' larvae

estuaryfungiglomus.jpg
Glomus clarum
Glomus clarum

Glowmerocota grow on the roots of plants.
Fungi
Glomeromycota
Glomeromycetes
Glomerales
Glomeraceae
Glowmus
clarum
Found on plants near and in estuaries.


Plants
The Kingdom of Plants is multi-celled, has cell walls,and has chlorophyll.




estuary_surfgrass.jpg
Surf Grass


Phyllospadix scouleri
Magnoliophyta have flowers and seeds in fruit.
Plantae
Magnoliophyta
Liliopsida
Alismatales
Zosteraceae
Phllospadix
scouleri
Lives in tidal areas in estuaries and around them.





estuary_bryopsida.jpg
Moss
Actinodontium integrifolium

Bryophyta: moss
Plants
Bryophyta
Bryopsida
Hookeriales
Daltoniaceae
Actinodontium
integrifolium
Found in South American estuaries
estuary_watersprite.jpg
watersprite




Ceratopteris thalictroide
Anthocerotophyta is non vascular but does no include mosses.
Plantae
Anthocerotophyta
Filicopsida
Polpodiales
Parkeriacea
Ceratoperis
thalictroides
Lives in tidal areas around estuaries in Texas, California, and Florida.
estuary_Japanese-Black-Pine.jpg
Japanese black pine
Pinus Thunbergii

Pinophyta: coniferPlants
Pinophyta
Pinopsida
Pinales
Pinaceae
Pinus
thunbergii


Ginkgo huttoni
Pinophyta: ginkgo
estuaryfern.jpg
Maidenhair fern

Plants
Pinophyta
Ginkgoopsida
Ginkgoales
Ginkgoaceae
Ginkgo
huttoni





Thelypteris palustris
Polypodiophyta: ferns
estuarymarsh_fern.jpg
Eastern Marsh Fern

Plants


Polypodiophyta
Polypodiopsida


Polypodiales
Thelypteridaceae
Thelypteris
palustris
Found in estuaries such as the Delaware Estuary


estuary_newzealand.jpg
New Zealand Quillwort

Isoetes alpina
Lycopodiophyta is a vascular moss.
Plantae
Lycopodiophyta
Lycopsida
Isoetales
Isoetaceae
Isoetes
alpina
Found in estuaries in New Zealand.



estuarybracken.jpg
Bracken

Pteridium aquilinum
Pteridophyta has leaves with spores on the bottom.
Plantae
Pteridophyta
Filicopsida
Poltpodiales
Dennstaedtiaceae
Pteridium
aquilinum
Found around estuaries across North America.



Stylites andicola
estuaryplant2.jpg
Stylites andicola

Lycopodiophyta is a vascular moss.
Plantae
Lycopodiophyta
Lycopsida
Isoetales
Isoetaceae
Stylites
andicola
Found in estuaries in Peru.
estuaryhorsetail.jpg
Horsetail


Equisetum alaskanum
Equisetophyta: horsetails
Plants
Equisetophyta
Equisetopsida
Equisetales
Equisetaceae
Equisetum
alaskanum
Found in moist areas such as estuaries, meadows, ditches, and streams
estuarybeggertick.jpg
estuary beggartick

Bidens hyperborea
Magnoliophyta have flowers and fruit with seeds in them.
Plantae
Magnoliophyta
Magnoliopsida
Asterales
Noctuoidea
Asteroideae
Coreopsideae
Bidens
hyperborea
Found on the edges of estuaries from Maine to New York.



estuarypine.jpg
Young leaves on a conifer
Falcatifolium taxoides

Pinophyta:conifer
Plants
Pinophyta
Pinopsida
Pinales
Papilionoidea
Falcatifolium
taxoides
Found in New Caledonia




Animals
The Kingdom Animals is multi-celled and digest its food inside its body.

Glaciarcula spitzbergensis
estuarybrachiopoda.jpg
Lamp Shell

Brachiopoda (lamp shells); one opening for food and waste, circulatory system, top and bottom shell
Animals
Brachiopoda
Rhynchonellata
Terebratulida
Laqueidae
Glaciarcula
spitzbergensis
Found in European waters, Mediterranean Sea, and other estuaries all over the world


Conopeum reticulum
estuary_cono.jpg
Zeelantwerk

Bryozoa live in water, have two openings for food and waste and have tentacles.
Animalia
Bryozoa
Gymnolaemata
Cheilostom
Electridae
Conopeum
reyiculum
Found in estuaries around the Atlantic ocean.



Stereobalanus canadensis
Hemichordata have two openings for food and waste,
estuary_acorn_worm.jpg
Acorn Worm

simple circulatoryand live in water.
Animalia
Hemichordata
Enteropneusta
NA
Harrimaniidae
Stereobalanus
canadensis
Lives in the Gulf of Mexico.



Sagitta enflata
Chaetognatha has two openings for food and waste, no
circulatory system, and lives in salt water.
estuary_arrow_worm.jpg
Arrow Worm

Animalia
Chaetognatha
NA
NA
Sagittidae
Sagitta
enflata
Lives in estuaries and in the oceans around them.

estuarysegmentedworms.jpg
borstelworm
Tubificoides heterochaetus

Annelida: one opening for waste, another for waste, circulatory system
Animals
Annelida
Clitellata
Haplotaxida
Tubificidae
Tubificoides
heterochaetus
Found along coasts and in estuaries



Mustelus lenticulatus
Elasmobranchii have skeletons of cartilage,
estuarymango.jpg
Mango, Lemonhead

fleshy fins
Animalia
ChordataElasmobranchii
Carcharhiniformes
Triakidae
Mustelus
lenticulatus
Found in estuaries in Australia and New Zealand.

Crocodylus porosus
estuarycroc.jpg
Salt Water Crocodile

Reptilia have scales, lay eggs, and are ectotherms.
Animalia
Chordata
Reptilia
Crocodylia
Crocodylidae
Crocodylus
porosus
Found in estuaries in Australia and Asia.


estuaryfreshhydroid.jpg
Freshwater hydroid
Cordylophora caspia

Cnidaria: 2 layers of cells with jelly-like substance, one opening for food/waste
Animals
Cnidaria
Hydrozoa
Anthoathecata
Oceanidae
Cordylophora
caspia
Found in etuaries, especially near the East North Atlantic Ocean

Phoca vitulina
estuaryharborseal.jpg
Harbor seal

Mammalia: hairy, milk-producing, endothermic
Animals
Chordata
Mammalia
Carnivora
Phocidae
Phoca
vitulina
Found primarily in colder estuaries

estuarygoose.jpg
Canada goose
Branta canadensis

Aves: hollow bones, scaly legs, feathers
Animals
Chordata
Aves
Anseriformes
Anatidae
Branta
canadensis
Migrarory bird found in varied estuaries at different times of year


estuaryblanco.jpg
Roughneck grunt

Pomadasys corvinaeformis
Actinopterygii have fins supported by bonesand has an
upper jaw that slides forward when opened.
Animalia
Chordata
Actinopterygii
Perciformes
Haemulidae
Pomadasys
corvinaeformis
Found in the Caribbean and Brazil.
estuarylamprey.jpg
Eel sucker or sea lamprey
Petromyzon marinus

Cephalaspidomorphi: jawless fish, skeleton of cartilage, hatch in fresh water, live in salt water as an adult, back to fresh water to lay eggs
Animals
Chordata
Cephalaspidomorphi
Petromyzontiformes
Petromyzontidae
Pertomyzon
marinus
Found in oceans, lakes and estuaries all around the world.















Biomes Home
Estuary Home
Estuary Interactions
Estuary Food Web
Estuary Conservation
Estuary Bibliography